|submitted by emansipater to Bitcoin [link] [comments]|
|submitted by btctt to Bitcoin [link] [comments]|
Disclaimer: This is for education purposes only. This is quite advanced for the average user. If you are to going to protect funds with a mnemonic generated using this method, use only a verified copy of tails and do all processes in a completely secure offline environment.Let me begin by saying there is nothing to suggest that the RNG used in popular software/hardware wallets is flawed. The generation process uses TRNG's certified from 3rd parties which should satisfy the large majority of users. However, if you are the type that trusts no one and you want to verify your BIP39 Mnemonic is truly random or you just want to find out how it works, then you must generate it yourself.
echo "obase=2;ibase=6;[diceRolls]" | bc
echo "obase=16;ibase=2;[binary]" | bc
import hashlib import binascii hex_val = "" # <-- Enter your hex value here bin_data = binascii.a2b_hex(hex_val) sha256hash = hashlib.sha256(bin_data).hexdigest() print(sha256hash)
|Can we really detect any asteroids in space with accuracy and do we have any real means of destroying it?||Yes, we can detect new asteroids when they are still in space. Every night dozens of new asteroids are found, including a few that can come close to the Earth.|
|Regarding the second part of the question, the goal would be to deflect them more than destroy them, and it is technologically possible. The Hera/DART mission currently being developed by ESA and NASA will demonstrate exactly this capability.|
|I always wanted to ask: what is worse for life on Earth - to be hit by a single coalesced asteroid chunk, or to be hit by a multiple smaller pieces of exploded asteroid, aka disrupted rubble pile scenario?||DVK: This is difficult to answer. If the rubble is small (centimetres to meters) it is better to have lots of small ones – they’d create nice bright meteors. If the rubble pieces are tens of meters it doesn’t help.|
|Let’s say that hypothetically, an asteroid the size of Rhode Island is coming at us, it will be a direct hit - you’ve had the resources and funding you need, your plan is fully in place, everything you’ve wanted you got. The asteroid will hit in 10 years, what do you do?||DVK: I had to look up how big Rhode Island is – a bit larger than the German Bundesland ‘Saarland’. Ok – this would correspond to an object about 60 km in diameter, right? That’s quite big – we would need a lot of rocket launches, this would be extremely difficult. I would pray. The good news is that we are quite convinced that we know all objects larger than just a few kilometers which come close to our planet. None of them is on a collision course, so we are safe.|
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|Why are you quite convinced that you know all object of that size? And what is your approach in finding new celestial bodies?||DVK: There was a scientific study done over a few years (published in Icarus 2018, search for Granvik) where they modelled how many objects there are out there. They compared this to the observations we have with the telescopic surveys. This gives us the expected numbers shown here on our infographic: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained|
|There are additional studies to estimate the ‘completeness’ – and we think that we know everything above roughly a few km in size.|
|To find new objects, we use survey telescopes that scan the night sky every night. The two major ones are Catalina and Pan-STARRS, funded by NASA. ESA is developing the so-called Flyeye telescope to add to this effort https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2017/02/Flyeye_telescope.|
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|Thanks for the answer, that's really interesting! It's also funny that the fist Flyeye deployed is in Sicily, at less than 100km from me, I really had no idea||DVK: Indeed, that's cool. Maybe you can go and visit it one day.|
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|What about Interstellar objects however, like Oumuamua?||DVK: The two that we have seen - 'Oumuamua and comet Borisov - were much smaller than the Saarland (or Rhode Island ;-) - not sure about Borisov, but 'Oumuamua was a few hundred meters in size. So while they could indeed come as a complete surprise, they are so rare that I wouldn't worry.|
|Would the public be informed if an impending asteroid event were to happen? And, how would the extinction play out? Bunch of people crushed to death, knocked off our orbit, dust clouds forever?||DVK: We do not keep things secret – all our info is at the web page http://neo.ssa.esa.int. The ‘risky’ objects are in the ‘risk page’. We also put info on really close approaches there. It would also be very difficult to keep things ‘under cover’ – there are many high-quality amateur astronomers out there that would notice.|
|In 2029 asteroid Apophis will fly really close to Earth, even closer than geostationary satellites. Can we use some of those satellites to observe the asteroid? Is it possible to launch very cheap cube sats to flyby Apophis in 2029?||DVK: Yes an Apophis mission during the flyby in 2029 would be really nice. We even had a special session on that topic at the last Planetary Defense Conference in 2019, and indeed CubeSats were mentioned. This would be a nice university project – get me a close-up of the asteroid with the Earth in the background!|
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|So you’re saying it was discussed and shelved?||In the conference we just presented ideas. To make them happen needs funding - in the case of ESA the support of our member countries. But having something presented at a conference is the first step. One of the results of the conference was a statement to space agencies to consider embarking on such a mission. See here: https://www.cosmos.esa.int/documents/336356/336472/PDC_2019_Summary_Report_FINAL_FINAL.pdf/341b9451-0ce8-f338-5d68-714a0aada29b?t=1569333739470|
|Go to the section 'resolutions'. This is now a statement that scientists can use to present to their funding agencies, demonstrating that it's not just their own idea.|
|Thanks for doing this AMA! Did we know the Chelyabinsk meteor in 2013 (the one which had some great videos on social media) was coming? Ig not, how comes? Also, as a little side one, have there been any fatalities from impact events in the past 20 years?||Unfortunately, the Chelyabinsk object was not seen in advance, because it came from the direction of the Sun where ground-based telescopes cannot look.|
|No known fatalities from impacts have happened in the past 20 years, although the Chelyabinsk event did cause many injuries, fortunately mostly minor.|
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|How often do impacts from that direction happen, compared to impacts from visible trajectories?||In terms of fraction of the sky, the area that cannot be easily scanned from the ground is roughly a circle with a radius of 40°-50° around the current position of the Sun, corresponding to ~15% of the total sky. However, there is a slight enhancement of objects coming from that direction, therefore the fraction of objects that may be missed when heading towards us is a bit higher.|
|However, this applies only when detecting an asteroid in its "final plunge" towards the Earth. Larger asteroids can be spotted many orbits earlier, when they are farther away and visible in the night side of the sky. Their orbits can then be determined and their possible impacts predicted even years or decades in advance.|
|There must be a trade-off when targeting asteroids as they get closer to Earth, is there a rule of thumb at what the best time is to reach them, in terms of launch time versus time to reach the asteroid and then distance from Earth?||DVK: Take e.g. a ‘kinetic impactor’ mission, like what DART and Hera are testing. Since we only change the velocity of the asteroid slightly, we need to hit the object early enough so that the object has time to move away from it’s collision course. Finding out when it is possible to launch requires simulations done by our mission analysis team. They take the strength of the launcher into account, also the available fuel for course corrections, and other things. Normally each asteroid has its own best scenario.|
|Do you also look at protecting the moon from asteroids? Would an impact of a large enough scale potentially have major impacts on the earth?||DVK: There are programmes that monitor the Moon and look for flashes from impacting small asteroids (or meteoroids) - https://neliota.astro.noa.g or the Spanish MIDAS project. We use the data to improve our knowledge about these objects. These programmes just look at what is happening now.|
|For now we would not do anything if we predicted a lunar impact. I guess this will change once we have a lunar base in place.|
|Why aren't there an international organisation comprised of countries focused on the asteroid defence? Imagine like the organisation with multi-billion $ budget and program of action on funding new telescopes, asteroid exploration mission, plans for detection of potentially dangerous NEA, protocols on action after the detection - all international, with heads of states discussing these problems?||DVK: There are international entities in place, mandated by the UN: The International Asteroid Warning Network (http://www.iawn.net) and the Space Mission Planning Advisory Group (http://www.smpag.net). These groups advise the United Nations. That is exactly where we come up with plans and protocols on action. But: They don’t have budget – that needs to come from elsewhere. I am expecting that if we have a real threat, we would get the budget. Right now, we don’t have a multi-billion budget.|
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|There is no actual risk of any sizable asteroids hitting earth in the foreseeable future. Any preparation for it would just be a waste of money.||DVK: Indeed, as mentioned earlier, we do not expect a large object to hit is in the near future. We are mainly worried about those in the size range of 20 m to 40 m, which happen on average every few tens of years to hundreds of years. And where we only know a percent of them or even less.|
|President Obama wanted to send a crewed spacecraft to an asteroid - in your opinion is this something that should still be done in the future, would there be any usefulness in having a human being walk/float on an asteroid's surface?||DVK: It would definitely be cool. I would maybe even volunteer to go. Our current missions to asteroids are all robotic, the main reason is that it is much cheaper (but still expensive) to get the same science. But humans will expand further into space, I am sure. If we want to test human exploration activities, doing this at an asteroid would be easier than landing on a planet.|
|this is another reply||Yes, but I am slightly biased by the fact that I work at the European astronaut centre ;) There exist many similarities to what we currently do for EVA (extra vehicular activities) operations on the International Space Station versus how we would 'float' around an asteroid. Slightly biased again, but using such a mission to test exploration technologies would definitely still have value. Thanks Obama! - AC|
|I've heard that some asteroids contains large amounts of iron. Is there a possibility that we might have "space mines" in the far away future, if our own supply if iron runs out?||Yes, this is a topic in the field known as space mining, part of what we call Space Resources. In fact, learning how we can process material we might find on asteroids or other planetary bodies is increasingly important, as it opens up the opportunities for sustainable exploration and commercialization. Its a technology we need to master, and asteroids can be a great target for testing how we can create space mines :) - AC|
|By how much is DART expected to deflect Didymos? Do we have any indication of the largest size of an asteroid we could potentially deflect?||PM: Didymos is a binary asteroid, consisting of a main asteroid Didymos A (~700m) and a smaller asteroid Didymos B (~150m) orbiting around A with a ~12 hours period. DART is expected to impact Didymos B and change its orbital period w.r.t. Didymos A of ~1%. (8 mins)|
|The size of Didymos B is the most representative of a potential threat to Earth (the highest combination of probability and consequence of impacts), meaning smaller asteroids hit the Earth more often but have less severe consequences, larger asteroids can have catastrophic consequences but their probability of hitting the earth is very very low.|
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|Why is there less probability of larger asteroids hitting earth?||DVK: There are less large objects out there. The smaller they are, the more there are.|
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|Is there any chance that your experiment will backfire and send the asteroid towards earth?||PM: Not at all, or we would not do that :) Actually Dimorphos (the Didymos "moon") will not even leave its orbit around Didymos. It will just slightly change its speed.|
|I'm sure you've been asked this many times but how realistic is the plot of Armageddon? How likely is it that our fate as a species will rely on (either) Bruce Willis / deep sea oil drillers?||Taking into consideration that Bruce Willis is now 65 and by the time HERA is launched he will be 69, I do not think that we can rely on him this time (although I liked the movie).|
|HERA will investigate what method we could use to deflect asteroid and maybe the results will show that we indeed need to call the deep sea oil drillers.|
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|So then would it be easier to train oil drillers to become astronauts, or to train astronauts to be oil drillers?||I do not know which one would be easier since I have no training/experience of deep see oil drilling nor becoming an astronaut, but as long as the ones that would go to asteroid have the sufficient skills and training (even Bruce Willis), I would be happy.|
|If budget was no object, which asteroid would you most like to send a mission to?||Nice question! For me, I'd be looking at an asteroid we know something about, since I would be interested in using it for testing how we could extract resources from it. So for me, I would choose Itokawa (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/25143_Itokawa), which was visited by Hayabusa spacecraft. So we already have some solid prospecting carried out for this 'roid! - AC|
|this is another reply||Not sure if it counts as an asteroid, but Detlef and myself would probably choose ʻOumuamua, the first discovered interstellar object.|
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|Do we even have the capability to catch up to something like that screaming through our solar system? That thing has to have a heck of a velocity to just barrel almost straight through like that.||DVK: Correct, that would be a real challenge. We are preparing for a mission called 'Comet Interceptor' that is meant to fly to an interstellar object or at least a fresh comet - but it will not catch up with it, it will only perform a short flyby.|
|After proving to be able to land on one, could an asteroid serve as a viable means to transport goods and or humans throughout the solar system when the orbit of said asteroid proves beneficial. While it is probably quite problematic to land the payload, it could save fuel or am I mistaken?||Neat idea! Wonder if anyone has done the maths on the amount of fuel you would need/save vs certain targets. - AC|
|PM: To further complement, the saving is quite marginal indeed because in order to land (softly) on the asteroid you actually need to get into the very same orbit of that asteroid . At that point your orbit remains the same whether you are on the asteroid or not..|
|can the current anti-ballistic missiles systems intercept a terminal phase earth strike asteroid? or it is better to know beforehand and launch an impacting vehicle into space?||DVK: While I do see presentations on nuclear explosions to deflect asteroids at our professional meetings, I have not seen anybody yet studying how we could use existing missile systems. So it's hard to judge whether existing missiles would do the job. But in general, it is better to know as early as possible about a possible impact and deflect it as early as possible. This will minimize the needed effort.|
|How much are we prepared against asteroid impacts at this moment?||DVK: 42… :-) Seriously – I am not sure how to quantify ‘preparedness’. We have international working groups in place, mentioned earlier (search for IAWN, SMPAG). We have a Planetary Defence Office at ESA, a Planetary Defense Office at NASA (who spots the difference?), search the sky for asteroids, build space missions… Still we could be doing more. More telescopes to find the object, a space-based telescope to discover those that come from the direction of the Sun. Different test missions would be useful, … So there is always more we could do.|
|Have you got any data on the NEO coverage? Is there estimations on the percentage of NEOs we have detected and are tracking? How can we improve the coverage? How many times have asteroids been able to enter earths atmosphere without being detected beforehand?||Here’s our recently updated infographics with the fraction of undiscovered NEOs for each size range: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained|
|As expected, we are now nearly complete for the large ones, while many of the smaller ones are still unknown.|
|In order to improve coverage, we need both to continue the current approach, centered on ground-based telescopes, and probably also launch dedicated telescopes to space, to look at the fraction of the sky that cannot be easily observed from the ground (e.g., towards the Sun).|
|Regarding the last part of your question, small asteroids enter the Earth atmosphere very often (the infographics above gives you some numbers), while larger ones are much rarer.|
|In the recent past, the largest one to enter our atmosphere was about 20 meters in diameter, and it caused the Chelyabinsk event in 2013. It could not be detected in advance because it came from the direction of the Sun.|
|We have however detected a few small ones before impact. The first happened in 2008, when a ~4-meter asteroid was found to be on a collision course less than a day before impact, it was predicted to fall in Northern Sudan, and then actually observed falling precisely where (and when) expected.|
|this is another reply||>After|
|DVK: And to add what MM said - Check out http://neo.ssa.esa.int. There is a ‘discovery statistics’ section which provides some of the info you asked about. NASA is providing similar information here https://cneos.jpl.nasa.gov/stats/. To see the sky which is currently covered by the survey telescopes, you need to service of the Minor Planet Center which we all work together with: http://www.minorplanetcenter.org, ‘observers’, ‘sky coverage’. That is a tool we use to plan where we look with our telescopes, so it is a more technical page.|
|Are there any automatic systems for checking large numbers of asteroids orbits, to see if the asteroid's orbit is coming dangerously close to Earth, or is it done by people individually for every asteroid? I ask it because LSST Rubin is coming online soon and you know it will discover a lot of new asteroids.||Yes, such systems exist, and monitor all known and newly discovered asteroids in order to predict possible future impacts.|
|The end result of the process is what we call "risk list": http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page|
|It is automatically updated every day once new observational data is processed.|
|What are your favourite sci-fi series?||DVK: My favorites are ‘The Expanse’, I also liked watching ‘Salvation’. For the first one I even got my family to give me a new subscription to a known internet streaming service so that I can see the latest episodes. I also loved ‘The Jetsons’ and ‘The Flintstones’ as a kid. Not sure the last one counts as sci-fi though. My long-time favorite was ‘Dark Star’.|
|this is another reply||Big fan of The Expanse at the moment. Nice, hard sci-fi that has a good impression of being grounded in reality - AC|
|this is another reply||When I was a kid I liked The Jetsons, when growing up Star Trek, Star wars and I also used to watch with my sister the 'V'.|
|When determining the potential threat of a NEA, is the mass of an object a bigger factor or size? I'm asking because I'm curious if a small but massive object (say, with the density of Psyche) could survive atmospheric entry better than a comparatively larger but less massive object.||The mass is indeed what really matters, since it’s directly related with the impact energy.|
|And as you said composition also matters, a metal object would survive atmospheric entry better, not just because it’s heavier, but also because of its internal strength.|
|What are your thoughts on asteroid mining as portrayed in sci-fi movies? Is it feasible? If so would governments or private space programs be the first to do so?What type of minerals can be found on asteroids that would merit the costs of extraction?||Certainly there is valuable stuff you can find on asteroids. For example, the likely easiest material you can harvest from an asteroid would be volatiles such as H2O. Then you have industrial metals, things like Iron, Nickel, and Platinum group metals. Going further, you can break apart many of the oxide minerals you would find to get oxygen (getting you closer to producing rocket fuel in-situ!). Its feasible, but still needs alot of testing both here on Earth and eventually needs to be tested on a target. It may be that governments, via agencies like ESA or NASA, may do it first, to prove the principles somewhat, but I know many commercial entities are also aggresively working towards space mining. To show you that its definitely possible, I'd like to plug the work of colleagues who have processed lunar regolith (which is similar to what you may find on asteroids) to extract both oxygen and metals. Check it out here: http://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2019/10/Oxygen_and_metal_from_lunar_regolith|
|Will 2020's climax be a really big rock?||DVK: Let's hope not...|
|Considering NASA, ESA, IAU etc. is working hard to track Earth-grazing asteroids, how come the Chelyabinsk object that airburst over Russia in 2013 came as a total surprise?||The Chelyabinsk object came from the direction of the Sun, where unfortunately ground-based telescopes cannot look at. Therefore, it would not have been possible to discover it in advance with current telescopes. Dedicated space telescopes are needed to detect objects coming from this direction in advance.|
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|Is this to say that it was within specific solid angles for the entire time that we could have observed it given its size and speed?||Yes, precisely that. We got unlucky in this case.|
|Have any of you read Lucifer's Hammer by Larry Niven? In your opinion, how realistic is his depiction of an asteroid strike on Earth?||DVK: I have – but really long ago, so I don’t remember the details. But I do remember that I really liked the book, and I remember I always wanted to have a Hot Fudge Sundae when reading it.|
|I was thinking about the asteroid threat as a teen and came up with this ideas (Hint: they are not equally serious, the level of craziness goes up real quick). Could you please comment on their feasibility? 1. Attaching a rocket engine to an asteroid to make it gradually change trajectory, do that long in advance and it will miss Earth by thousands of km 2. Transporting acid onto asteroid (which are mainly metal), attaching a dome-shaped reaction chamber to it, using heat and pressure to then carry out the chemical reaction to disintegrate asteroids 3. This one is even more terrible than a previous one and totally Dan Brown inspired — transporting antimatter on asteroid, impacting and causing annihilation. Thank you for this AMA and your time!||DVK: Well the first one is not so crazy, I have seen it presented... the difficulty is that all asteroids are rotating in one way or another. So if you continuously fire the engine it would not really help. You'd need to switch the engine on and off. Very complex. And landing on an asteroid is challenging too. Just using the 'kinetic impactor' which we will test with DART/Hera (described elsewhere in this chat) is simpler. Another seriously proposed concept is to put a spacecraft next to an asteroid and use an ion engine (like we have on our Mercury mission BepiColombo) to 'push' the asteroid away.|
|As for 2 and 3 I think I will not live to see that happening ;-)|
|What is the process to determine the orbit of a newly discovered asteroid?||The process is mathematically quite complex, but here's a short summary.|
|Everything starts with observations, in particular with measurements of the position of an asteroid in the sky, what we call "astrometry". Discovery telescopes extract this information from their discovery images, and make it available to everybody.|
|These datapoints are then used to calculate possible trajectories ("orbits") that pass through them. At first, with very few points, many orbits will be possible.|
|Using these orbits we can extrapolate where the asteroid will be located during the following nights, use a telescope to observe that part of the sky, and locate the object again.|
|From these new observations we can extract new "astrometry", add it to the orbit determination, and see that now only some of the possible orbits will be compatible with the new data. As a result, we now know the trajectory better than before, because a few of the possible orbits are not confirmed by the new data.|
|The cycle can then continue, with new predictions, new observations, and a more accurate determination of the object's orbit, until it can be determined with an extremely high level of accuracy.|
|What are some asteroids that are on your "watchlist"?||We have exactly that list on our web portal: http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page|
|It's called "risk list", and it includes all known asteroids for which we cannot exclude a possible impact over the next century. It is updated every day to include newly discovered asteroids, and remove those that have been excluded as possible impactors thanks to new observations.|
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|That's quite a list!! Do you guys ever feel stressed or afraid when you have to add another dangerous candidate (and by dangerous I mean those above 200m) is added to this Risk List?||Yes, when new dangerous ones are added it's important that we immediately do our best to gather more data on them, observing them with telescopes in order to get the information we need to improve our knowledge of their orbit.|
|And then the satisfaction of getting the data needed to remove one from the list is even greater!|
|What inspired you to go into this field of study?||I was fascinated by astronomy in general since I was a kid, but the actual "trigger" that sparked my interest in NEOs was a wonderful summer course on asteroids organized by a local amateur astronomers association. I immediately decided that I would do my best to turn this passion into my job, and I'm so happy to have been able to make that dream come true.|
|this is another reply||DVK: I started observing meteors when I was 14, just by going outside and looking at the night sky. Since then, small bodies in the solar system were always my passion.|
|As a layperson, I still think using nuclear weapons against asteroids is the coolest method despite better methods generally being available. Do you still consider the nuclear option the cool option, or has your expertise in the field combined with the real-life impracticalities made it into a laughable/silly/cliche option?||DVK: We indeed still study the nuclear option. There are legal aspects though, the ‘outer space treaty’ forbids nuclear explosions in space. But for a large object or one we discover very late it could be useful. That’s why we have to focus on discovering all the objects out there as early as possible – then we have time enough to use more conventional deflection methods, like the kinetic impactor (the DART/Hera scenario).|
|It seems like doing this well would require international cooperation, particularly with Russia. Have you ever reached out to Russia in your work? Do you have a counterpart organization there that has a similar mission?||DVK: Indeed international cooperation is important - asteroids don't know about our borders! We work with a Russian team to perform follow-up observations of recently discovered NEOs. Russia is also involved in the UN-endorsed working groups that we have, IAWN and SMPAG (explained in another answer).|
|how much can experts tell from a video of a fireball or meteor? Can you work out what it's made of and where it came from? https://www.reddit.com/space/comments/hdf3xe/footage_of_a_meteor_at_barrow_island_australia/?utm_source=share&utm_medium=web2x||If multiple videos or pictures, taken from different locations, are available, then it's possible to reconstruct the trajectory, and extrapolate where the object came from.|
|Regarding the composition, it's a bit more difficult if nothing survives to the ground, but some information can be obtained indirectly from the fireball's color, or its fragmentation behavior. If a spectral analysis of the light can be made, it's then possible to infer the chemical composition in much greater detail.|
|I've always wanted to know what the best meteorite buying site is and what their average price is??||DVK: Serious dealers will be registered with the 'International Meteorite Collectors Association (IMCA)' - https://www.imca.cc/. They should provide a 'certificate of authenticity' where it says that they are member there. If you are in doubt, you can contact the association and check. Normally there are rough prices for different meteorite types per gram. Rare meteorites will of course be much more expensive than more common ones. Check the IMCA web page to find a dealer close to you.|
|Just read through Aidans link to the basaltic rock being used as a printing material for lunar habitation. There is a company called Roxul that does stone woven insulation that may be able to shed some light on the research they have done to minimize their similarity to asbestos as potentially carcinogenic materials deemed safe for use in commercial and residential applications. As the interior surfaces will essentially be 3D printed lunar regolith what are the current plans to coat or dampen the affinity for the structure to essentially be death traps for respiratory illness?||At least initially, many of these 3d printed regolith structures would not be facing into pressurised sections, but would rather be elements placed outside and around our pressure vessels. Such structures would be things like radiation shields, landing pads or roadways, etc. In the future, if we move towards forming hermetically sealed structures, then your point is a good one. Looking into terrestrial solutions to this problem would be a great start! - AC|
|What kind of career path does it take to work in the asteroid hunting field?||It's probably different for each of us, but here's a short summary of my own path.|
|I became interested in asteroids, and near-Earth objects in particular, thanks to a wonderful summer course organized by a local amateur astronomers association. Amateur astronomers play a great role in introducing people, and young kids in particular, to these topics.|
|Then I took physics as my undergrad degree (in Italy), followed by a Ph.D. in astronomy in the US (Hawaii in particular, a great place for astronomers thanks to the exceptional telescopes hosted there).|
|After finishing the Ph.D. I started my current job at ESA's NEO Coordination Centre, which allowed me to realize my dream of working in this field.|
|this is another reply||DVK: Almost all of us have a Master's degree either in aerospace engineering, mathematics, physics/astronomy/planetary science, or computer science. Some of us - as MM - have a Ph.D. too. But that's not really a requirement. This is true for our team at ESA, but also for other teams in other countries.|
|What is the likelihood of an asteroid hitting the Earth In the next 200 years?||It depends on the size, large ones are rare, while small ones are much more common. You can check this infographics to get the numbers for each size class: https://www.esa.int/ESA_Multimedia/Images/2018/06/Asteroid_danger_explained|
|Have you played the Earth Defence Force games and if you have, which one is your favourite?||No I have not played the Earth Defence Force games, but I just looked it up and I think I would liked it. Which one would you recommend?|
|How close is too close to earth? Space is a SUPER vast void so is 1,000,000 miles close, 10,000,000? And if an asteroid is big enough can it throw earth off its orbit?||DVK: Too close for my taste is when we compute an impact probability > 0 for the object. That means the flyby distance is zero :-) Those are the objects on our risk page http://neo.ssa.esa.int/risk-page.|
|If an object can alter the orbit of another one, we would call it planet. So unless we have a rogue planet coming from another solar system (verrry unlikely) we are safe from that.|
|How can I join you when I'm older?||DVK: Somebody was asking about our career paths... Study aerospace engineering or math or physics or computer science, get a Masters. Possibly a Ph.D. Then apply for my position when I retire. Check here for how to apply at ESA: https://www.esa.int/About_Us/Careers_at_ESA/Frequently_asked_questions2#HR1|
|How much is too much?||DVK: 42 again|
|Are you aware of any asteroids that are theoretically within our reach, or will be within our reach at some point, that are carrying a large quantity of shungite? If you're not aware, shungite is like a 2 billion year old like, rock stone that protects against frequencies and unwanted frequencies that may be traveling in the air. I bought a whole bunch of the stuff. Put them around the la casa. Little pyramids, stuff like that.||DVK: If I remember my geology properly, Shungite forms in water sedimental deposits. This requires liquid water, i.e. a larger planet. So I don't think there is a high chance to see that on asteroids.|
The problem with Warframe is it literally has no depth outside of being a huge completionist trap. TLDR at bottom igSo as you can see, the reason we always think that there's a content drought is that there kind of is. The main game gets a quest about once a year and that's it pretty much. These grind islands like PoE, Fortuna, etc are NOT the main game but a lot of time is spent developing those. Saya's vigil and Vox Solaris are good steps to including them into the main game, but one quest is definitely not enough and there's no incentive to grind them after that except for amps and lenses. Railjack and Liches weren't supposed to be one of these islands, but as usual, theres 0 reason to play it after the quest.
After the cinematics, the player is looking to dive into the world of Warframe further, but instead, they find isolated islands of grind and no replay value. The only thing worth really doing is grinding weapon leveling and MR. All the "cool" updates are isolated from the main game and offer you nothing you could really want outside of cosmetics. The main game is untouched. The tutorial still isn't added as far as I know, we have little in-game resources to help new players, we still have very little reason to be attached to the characters due to lack of story and development, the missions lack variety and are bland/boring after a while, combat can be quite binary as the player vs enemy scalings are all sorts of messed up, and the story is all over the place for new players to figure out somehow (eg: Alad V).
Overall, there's too many islands and DE has been adding layers and layers onto the optional grind that offers little rewards and just ignore the main game. We want story quests, we want replay value (Replay value does not mean grinding. Replay value comes from rewarding a player adequately for showing enough effort for it. Having to grind for something over and over isn't rewarding. Things like puzzles are rewarding.), we want an immersive and believable world that we can interact with, and we want a cohesive game experience.
Pretty much all of my favorite moments in Warframe are lore driven quests. The Orb Mother quest was impactful because it shows the dark history of Solaris United. Chains Of Harrow was impactful because it was cinematic, it evoked emotion, and it expanded the Warframe universe in a new way. The Second Dream and The War Within shouldn't need explanations. Apostacy was heartbreaking. The Sacrifice almost made me CRY for Umbra. Considering this, why do we have so little quests if the quests ARE the main game???? Why do we keep spending so many resources on islands of grind?
My (more than likely controversial) opinion: start making more lore-based quests. It doesn't even have to be tied to the main story; in fact, we have way too little that arent tied to the main story. Having quests that just make Warframe's universe come alive are much needed. We don't have many quests that help us get attached to Lotus, Ordis, or any character really. The one we get most attached to is the Spoiler because we have multiple missions just focusing on them. Lock GOOD rewards behind these quests too, like new or old weapons (as these are meant to be for newer players). Players don't stay long because there's no reason to keep playing after the story unless you're a completionist.
If you want to have these islands of farm, then make them worthwhile to grind. The only things worth grinding open worlds for is captura stuff and amps, the only thing worth grinding Railjack for is the story quest, the only thing worth grinding liches for is the weapons (The weapons are usually just MR fodder so idk), and theres flat out no reason to play archwing or conclave. Again, my controversial opinion is to just take some weapons out of the market and just put them in some of these places somewhere. A key thing here though is DONT make it the only way to get it as this will always trigger a portion of your player base; providing several alternatives will always make the most people happy. Another point is to just fix the parts of the game the players hate... This is kind of ridiculous how much stuff gets put out then ignored. I hear many ideas about Conclave, Archwing, etc but they just rot. This is NOT good, as these are potential ways to make the game better that were just poorly executed and need reworks. These islands of grind need more work to actually be taken seriously, but should also not become the focus of the game like they were this year.
TLDR: Main game is the quests but there's far too little; too little lore and story and not much connection to characters, far too many isolated islands of content that don't work for one reason or another, some parts of the game are left to rot instead of being looked at, player and enemy scalings need a rework possibly, start migrating weapons from buying to rewarding them (controversial opinion), rewards vs effort needs to be looked at, and finally the game shouldn't just be about completionism.
Also, on a final note: If players can obviously notice something being time padded, you're doing it wrong cough Rising Tide.
Edit: Forgot to mention that the Jovian Concord was a step in the right direction for the newer players. Edit 2: Also forgot to mention that my ideas are highly focused around people currently going through the game and to help them have a better experience.
Hello again, Reddit!submitted by newhacker1746 to hackintosh [link] [comments]
Life took over and high school didn't get any easier. My apologies for the 9 month delay in this promised continued attempt from the previous post: https://www.reddit.com/hackintosh/comments/c0nrc8/catalina_with_broadwell_gvtg_in_linux/
This is going to be a long post, as this project has had several incarnations and lots of people wondering about it. I will be reaching out to as many of you as possible now that the coronavirus has given me several weeks out of physical school.
Table of Contents
TL;DR: 1) Linux 5.6-rc7 WITH patch, 2) qemu 4.2.0, 3) Ubuntu 20.04 dev branch
I am still using OSX-KVM's basic setup, including their prebuilt clover and some inspiration from their ng boot script.
Time went on and I'm still with the same MacBookAir7,2 but now on Ubuntu 20.04 (focal) dev branch. I also have a clean 10.15.3 install (working and booting) along with a custom compiled 5.6-rc7 kernel WITH the following patch for edid on BDW host:
I have a custom compiled qemu-4.2.0 for the latest possible code. I'm sure it's been updated since I compiled it about 2 months ago and am working on updating it.
My boot config to facilitate debugging:
boot-args= -v amfi_get_out_of_my_way=0x1 serial=1 intcoproc_unrestricted=1 amfi_allow_any_signature=1 amfi_unrestrict_task_for_pid=1 PE_i_can_has_debugger=1
csr_active_config=0x80 (new value that unrestricts everything)
edid: I used https://edid.tv/edid/98/. Just download the binary and xxd -p it into the Clover Configurator CustomEDID blank. You can use any edid like this. You can also just use my config.plist from the drive folder; it has this already set.
If you'd like the full configs I'm using, please see the following google drive folder:
If you're going to use the scripts I made, you'll need to edit:
make_vfio.sh: the chown line; replace with your user
qemu-install2.sh: drives, vfio path (if not using mine), net config (if not using mine)
net_kholia.sh: the tunctl command, replace my username with yours
II. Modification attempts so far
Clover: Right now, I have an ig-platform-id=0x16260006 to match my real macbook air. I also have set InjectIntel=true which seems to fix the new error: "[IGPU] Graphics driver failed to load: could not register with Framebuffer driver!".
Linux GVTg KERNEL: The edid BDW enablement patch is ONE of the two options for enabling QE/CI on the macOS accelerator kext. The other is a VM-side patch, possibly a binpatch or a clover EDID injection. I tried both; neither currently works.
Linux GVTg USERSPACE: No patches. I have a custom compiled, but vanilla, qemu 4.2.0.
macOS: no binpatches. It seems the kernel panic trigger that had to be binpatched in the past no longer exists, or perhaps the code has been rewritten internally. Reverse-engineering BDWGraphics to find out what is and isn't happening is definitely something to look to in the near future. It is possible that this was fixed by kvm.ignore_msrs=1 boot-arg, this linux arg also allows for non-penryn cpus to be used (I am using -cpu host in my qemu script).
III. Details on current issues/failures
qemu log shows: qemu-system-x86_64: vfio_pci_write_config(a297db4a-f4c2-11e6-90f6-d3b88d6c9525, 0x4, 0x900417, 0x4) failed: Bad address
This, along with the fact that the earlier kernel panic no longer occurs, AND the lack of BDW messages printed to kernel log, leads me to believe that somewhere in the BDW binary there is some logic failure. I may be wrong though:
Something seems to have changed, or it may just be me now with the MSR's being ignored having fixed the original panic that still could occur. Either way, there's no way to be sure if clover CustomEDID is working or not. It didn't work last time when the BDW kexts definitively did load and we saw printf's of it doing loading routines. There's a lot of uncertainty as I only just got this up and running today.
2) Kernel EDID patch: This came out around December and I'm very naive for not realizing I could've made this patch myself. It simply removed the Skylake/Kabylake platform detection logic and makes the edid function work on all platforms. Regardless, with the patch, a kernel oops occurs on the function intel_vgpu_reg_rw_edid in drivers/drm/i915/kvmgt.c. It is a null pointer dereference, working on getting the kprintf from it. This is a current area of attention. It may be because I'm using xres=1280 yres=800 on a GVT with maxres 1024x768, I'll work on using the 1920x1200 one instead and seeing if it still crashes.
The commit log for the patch from the intel guy said that all platforms should support the edid region. If anyone could test EDID on an "officially" supported platform, either Skylake or Kabylake, and see if you get the same oops with 5.6-rc7, please do so. If it just oopses on all platforms due to a regression, I may be able to compile a different kernel that doesn't cause a dereference. If Broadwell really doesn't support the EDID region when forced to, then this may be a blocking issue for the whole project (I don't possess any later hardware). WORKING ON THIS RIGHT NOW
IV. Addressing 9 months worth of community backlog
I don't want to be the kid whining about high school. I generally do very well, but it definitely takes some effort being at a infamously-academically difficult private school in the Orlando area. Now that we're "off" for several weeks, I'm prepared to dedicate a lot of time to getting this furthered.
amorooc ct_the_man_doll I saw your thread here: https://www.reddit.com/VFIO/comments/a2bnv3/state_of_gvtg_macos_support/
Please let me know all your questions! I will be active on reddit through the next several weeks. Have y'all been doing GVT-g since then?
TheRacerMaster I'd love to hear your thoughts. Have you been in the GVT-g scene since the High Sierra attempt? Contact me if you'd like to work on this privately; otherwise this post should be good to document progress for everyone.
spicypixel I saw your comment on the original Catalina attempt, as of now it is no longer abandoned!
davidgarazaz lilolalu please take a look here!
TrashConvo it's working but no display yet. I have screensharing on and using that to force using the BDW (-vga none).
/u/WesolyKubeczek you have the most promising story. I may be able to get there if I can get BDW edid working (not supported by a simple logic fail on kvmgt.c). Please tell us about if you ever got anywhere further?
8700t I'm curious: what binpatches with lilu? How did your demo work?
sobe3249 yes, I have the same vfio invalid issue. Currently investigating. Help would be appreciated!
If there's anyone I've missed, I didn't forget about you. This project has definitely grown further than I ever expected it to, beyond a weekend attempt. I'm crossposting this to several subreddits to make sure everyone who I wasn't able to get to in 9 months has a chance to participate in some real progress once more.
Thank you all! Looking forward to hearing from all of you.
V. Plan for getting this to work.
Other options may include nandrolone, an anabolic steroid administered via intramuscular injection, which is not as optimal a substrate for 5α-reductase as testosterone, but it has a stronger effect compared to the testosterone on target tissues devoid of 5α-reductase activity (e.g., muscular tissue) . Indeed, nandrolone can be theoretically used in non-binary AFAB individuals requesting masculinization of body shape (i.e., increased muscle mass) with a limited increase in facial and body hair. Regarding the safety profile of this compound, data are limited by the fact that most observations come from the setting of androgenic-anabolic steroid (AAS) abuse [16,17], thus their applicability to appropriate medical therapy is limited . In this setting, concerns about cardiomyopathy and coronary artery disease risk emerged , although associated with the administration of nandrolone at extremely higher dosages . Furthermore, nandrolone use does not seem associated to hepatotoxicity, since, as an injectable oil, it is not subject to first-pass hepatic metabolism.
Moreover, some AFAB transgender individuals can benefit from testosterone therapy combined with 5α-reductase inhibitors or from treatment with nandrolone (an androgenic compound less prone to 5α reduction) in case they wish only a partial virilization (i.e., voice deepening and lean mass increase without facial and body hair increase).
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